Any scholarly reference to GridWare should be to:
Lamey, A., Hollenstein, T., Lewis, M.D., & Granic, I. (2004). GridWare (Version 1.1). [Computer software].

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   Hollenstein, T. (2013). State space grids: Depicting dynamics across development. New York: Springer.





When publishing or reporting results from GridWare, we request that you please cite Lamey, Hollenstein, Lewis, & Granic (2004) and any of the following publications if relevant:

  1. Lewis, M. D., Lamey, A. V., & Douglas, L. (1999). A new dynamic systems method for the analysis of early socioemotional development. Developmental Science, 2, 458-476. Full Text
  2. Granic, I., & Lamey, A. V. (2002). Combining dynamic systems and multivariate analyses to compare the mother-child interactions of externalizing subtypes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 265-283. Full Text
  3. Granic, I., & Hollenstein, T. (2003). Dynamic systems methods for models of developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 641-669. Full Text
  4. Granic, I., Hollenstein, T., Dishion, T. J., & Patterson, G. R. (2003). Longitudinal analysis of flexibility and reorganization in early adolescence: A dynamic systems study of family interactions. Developmental Psychology, 39, 606-617. Full Text
  5. Granic, I., Dishion, T. J., & Hollenstein, T. (2003). The family ecology of adolescence: A dynamic systems perspective on normative development. In G. R. Adams & M. D. Berzonsky (Eds.) Blackwell Handbook of Adolescence, pp. 60-91. Blackwell: Malden, MA. Full Text
  6. Lewis, M.D., Zimmerman, S., Hollenstein, T., & Lamey, A.V. (2004). Reorganization in coping behavior at 1 1/2 Years: Dynamic systems and normative change. Developmental Science, 7(1), 56-73. Full Text
  7. Hollenstein, T., Granic, I., Stoolmiller, M., & Snyder, J. (2004). Rigidity in Parent-Child Interactions and the Development of Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior in Early Childhood. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32(6), 595-607. Full Text
  8. Dishion, T.J., Nelson, S.E., Winter, C., & Bullock, B. (2004). Adolescent friendship as a dynamic system: Entropy and deviance in the etiology and course of male antisocial behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32, 651 – 663. Full Text
  9. Martin, C.L., Fabes, R.A., Hanish, L.D., & Hollenstein, T. (2005). Social dynamics in the preschool. Developmental Review, 25, 299 – 327. Full Text
  10. Hollenstein, T. & Lewis, M.D. (2006). A state space analysis of emotion and flexibility in parent-child interactions. Emotion, 6 , 663 – 669. Full Text
  11. Granic, I., O’Hara, A., Pepler, D., & Lewis, M.D. (2007). A Dynamic Systems Analysis of Parent-child Changes Associated with Successful “Real-world” Interventions for Aggressive Children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 845 – 857. Full Text
  12. Hollenstein, T. (2007). State space grids: Analyzing dynamics across development. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31, 384 – 396. Full Text
  13. Connell, A. M., Hughes-Scalise, A., Klostermann, S., & Azem, T. (2011). Maternal depression and the heart of parenting: Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and affective dynamics during parent–adolescent interactions. Journal of Family Psychology, 25(5), 653-662.
  14. Erickson, K., Côté, J., Hollenstein, T., & Deakin, J (2011). Examining coach athlete interactions using state space grids: An observational analysis in competitive youth sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12, 645-654.
  15. Lunkenheimer, E.S., Olson, S. L., Hollenstein, T., Sameroff, A., & Winter, C. (2011). Dyadic flexibility and positive affect in parent-child coregulation and the development of children’s behavior problems. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 577 – 591.  FullText
  16. Murphy-Mills, J., Bruner, M., Erickson, K., & Cote, J. (2011). The utility of the state space grid method for studying peer interactions in youth sport, Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 23, 159 – 174.
  17. Ribeiro , A. P., Bento, T., Salgado, J., Stiles, W.B., & Gonçalves, M. M. (2011). A dynamic look at narrative change in psychotherapy: A case study tracking innovative moments and protonarratives using state space grids, Psychotherapy Research, 21, 54-69.
  18. Cerezo, M. A., Trenado, R. M., & Pons-Salvador, G. (2012). Mother-infant Interaction and Quality of Child’s Attachment: A Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Approach. Nonlinear Dynamics in Psychology and the Life Sciences, 16.
  19. Dishion, T.,  Forgatch, M., Van Ryzin, M., & Winter, C. (2012). The Nonlinear Dynamics of Family Problem Solving in Adolescence: The Predictive Validity of a Peaceful Resolution Attractor. Nonlinear Dynamics in Psychology and the Life Sciences, 16.
  20. Granic, I., Meusel, L., Lamm, C., Woltering, S., & Lewis, M.D. (2012). Emotion regulation in children with behavior problems: Linking behavioral and brain processes. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 1019-1029.
  21. Hollenstein, T. (2012). Using state space grids for understanding processes of change and stability in adolescence. In E. S. Kunnen (Ed.) A dynamic systems approach to adolescent development. London: Psychology Press.
  22. Hong, J., Hwang, M., Tam, K., Lai, Y., & Liu, L. (2012). Effects of cognitive style on digital jigsaw puzzle performance: A GridWare analysis. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 920 – 928.
  23. Lavictoire, L., Snyder, J., Stoolmiller, M., & Hollenstein, T. (2012). Affective dynamics in triadic peer interactions in early childhood. Nonlinear Dynamics in Psychology and the Life Sciences, 16.
  24. Lunkenheimer, E. S., Albrecht, E. C. and Kemp, C. J. (2012). Dyadic Flexibility in Early Parent–Child Interactions: Relations with Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Negativity and Behaviour Problems. Infant and Child Development.. doi: 10.1002/icd.1783
  25. Lunkenheimer, E. S., Hollenstein, T., Wang, J., & Shields, A. M. (2012). Flexibility and Attractors in Context: Family Emotion Socialization Patterns and Children’s Emotion Regulation in Late Childhood. Nonlinear Dynamics in Psychology and the Life Sciences, 16.
  26. Mainhard, M. T., Pennings, H.J.M., Wubbels, T., & Brekelmans, M. (2012). Mapping control and affiliation in teacher–student interaction with state space grids, Teaching and Teacher Education, 28, 1027 – 1037.
  27. Moore, G. A., Powers, C. J., Bass, A. J., Cohn, J. F., Propper, C. B., Allen, N. B. and Lewinsohn, P. M. (2012). Dyadic Interaction: Greater than the Sum of its Parts?. Infancy. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7078.2012.00136.x
  28. Pollack, C. (2012), The Invisible Link: Using State Space Representations to Investigate the Connection Between Variables and Their Referents. Mind, Brain, and Education, 6, 156–163.
  29. van Dijk, M., Hunnius, S., & van Geert, P. (2012). The dynamics of feeding during the introduction to solid food, Infant Behavior and Development, 35, 226 – 239.
  30. Wubbels, T., Opdenakker, M., & Brok, P. D. (2012). Let’s make things better, Interpersonal Relationships in Education: Advances in Learning Environments Research, 3, 225-249.
  31. DiDonato, M. D., England, D., Martin, C. L., & Amazeen, P. G. (2013). Dynamical analyses for developmental science: A primer for intrigued scientists, Human Development
  32. Smith, J.D., Dishion, T.J., Moore, K.J.,Shaw, D.S., & Wilson, M.N. (2013).Effects of Video Feedback on Early Coercive Parent–Child Interactions: The Intervening Role of Caregivers’ Relational Schemas, Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 42, 405 – 417.
  33. van der Giessen, D., Branje, S.J.T., Frijns, T., & Meeus, W. H.J. (2013). Dyadic variability in mother-adolescent interactions: Developmental trajectories and associations with psychosocial functioning. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42, 96 – 108.
  34. Sravish, A. V., Tronick, E., Hollenstein, T., & Beeghly, M. (2013). Dyadic flexibility during the face-to-face still-face paradigm: A dynamic systems analysis of its temporal organization. Infant Behavior and Development, 36, 432 – 437.
  35. Turnnidge, J., Cote, J., Hollenstein, T., & Deakin, J. (2013). A direct observation of the dynamic content and structure of coach-athlete interactions in a model sport program, Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. doi: 10.1080/10413200.2013.821637
  36. Bento, T., Ribeiro, A. P., Salgado, J., Mendes, I., & Gonçalves, M. M. (2014). The Narrative Model of Therapeutic Change: An Exploratory Study Tracking Innovative Moments and Protonarratives Using State Space Grids. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 27(1), 41-58.
  37. Butler, E. A., Hollenstein, T., Shoham, V., & Rohrbaugh, N. (2014). A dynamic state-space analysis of interpersonal emotion regulation in couples who smoke. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 31, 907 – 927.
  38. Herbers, J. E., Cutuli, J. J., Monn, A. R., Narayan, A. J., & Masten, A. S. (2014). Trauma, Adversity, and Parent-Child Relationships among Young Children Experiencing Homelessness. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42, 1167 – 1174.
  39. Herbers, J. E., Cutuli, J. J., Supkoff, L. M., Narayan, A. J., & Masten, A. S. (2014). Parenting and coregulation: Adaptive systems for competence in children experiencing homelessness. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 84(4), 420 – 430.
  40. Meindertsma, H. B., van Dijk, M. W., Steenbeek, H. W., & van Geert, P. L. (2014). Stability and Variability in Young Children’s Understanding of Floating and Sinking During One Single‐Task Session. Mind, Brain, and Education8(3), 149-158.
  41. Pennings, H.J.M., van Tartwijk, J., Wubbels, T., Claessens, L.C.A., van der Want, A.C., & Brekelmans, M. (2014). Real-time teacher–student interactions: A Dynamic Systems approach. Teaching and Teacher Education, 37, 183 – 193.
  42. Pennings, H. J. M., Brekelmans, M. , Wubbels, T., Van Der Want, A. C., Claessens, L. C. A. & Van Tartwijk, J. (2014). A Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Approach to Real-Time Teacher Behavior: Differences between Teachers. Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, 18(1), 23-45.
  43. Puche-Navarro, R., & Rodríguez-Burgos, L. P. (2014). Particularities and Universalities of the Emergence of Inductive Generalization. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science.
  44. Smith, J. D., Dishion, T. J., Shaw, D. S., & Wilson, M. N. (2014). Negative Relational Schemas Predict the Trajectory of Coercive Dynamics During Early Childhood. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology.
  45. Smith, J. D., Dishion, T. J., Shaw, D. S., Wilson, M. N., Winter, C. C., & Patterson, G. R. (2014). Coercive family process and early-onset conduct problems from age 2 to school entry. Development and Psychopathology, 26, 917 – 932.
  46. Turner, J. C. (2014). Theory-Based Interventions with Middle-School Teachers to Support Student Motivation and Engagement. In Motivational Interventions (pp. 341-378). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
  47. Turner, J. C., Christensen, A., Kackar-Cam, H. Z., Trucano, M., & Fulmer, S. M. (2014). Enhancing Students’ Engagement Report of a 3-Year Intervention With Middle School Teachers. American Educational Research Journal,51, 1195 -1226.
  48. Van der Giessen, D., Branje, S., Keijsers, L., Van Lier, P. A., Koot, H. M., & Meeus, W. (2014). Emotional variability during mother–adolescent conflict interactions: Longitudinal links to adolescent disclosure and maternal control. Journal of Adolescence37(1), 23-31.
  49. Barbot, B.,&Perchec, C. (2015). New directions for the study of within-individual variability in development: The power of “N = 1.” In E. L. Grigorenko (Ed.), The global context for new directions for child and adolescent development. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 147, 57–67.
  50. Chávez, J. D., & Montes, J. A. (2015). Verbalization levels and collaborative ill-structured problem solving. Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicología11(1), 55-66.
  51. Coburn, S. S., Crnic, K. A., & Ross, E. K. (2015). Mother–infant dyadic state behaviour: Dynamic systems in the context of risk. Infant and Child Development24(3), 274-297.
  52. Guevara Guerrero, M., & Puche-Navarro, R. (2015). The emergence of cognitive short-term planning: Performance of pre-schoolers in a problem-solving task. Acta Colombiana de Psicología18(2), 13-27.
  53. Guo, Y., Leu, S. Y., Barnard, K. E., Thompson, E. A., & Spieker, S. J. (2015). An examination of changes in emotion co‐regulation among mother and child dyads during the strange situation. Infant and Child Development,24(3), 256-273.
  54. Hayes, A. M., & Yasinski, C. (2015). Pattern destabilization and emotional processing in cognitive therapy for personality disorders. Frontiers in Psychology6, 1 – 13.
  55. Hayes, A. M., Yasinski, C., Barnes, J. B., & Bockting, C. L. (2015). Network destabilization and transition in depression: new methods for studying the dynamics of therapeutic change. Clinical Psychology Review41, 27-39.
  56.  Koster, E.H.W., Fang, L., & Marchetti, I., Ebner-Priemer, U., Kirsch, P., Huffzinger, S., Kühner, C. (2015). Examining the relation between affect and rumination in remitted depressed individuals: A dynamic systems analysis. Clinical Psychological Science3(4), 619-627.
  57. Kupers, E., van Dijk, M., & van Geert, P. (2015). Within-teacher differences in one-to-one teacher–student interactions in instrumental music lessons. Learning and Individual Differences37, 283-289.
  58. Lougheed, J. P., Hollenstein, T., Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A., & Granic, I. (2015). Maternal regulation of child affect in externalizing and typically-developing children. Journal of Family Psychology29, 10 – 19.
  59. Provenzi, L., Borgatti, R., Menozzi, G., & Montirosso, R. (2015). A dynamic system analysis of dyadic flexibility and stability across the Face-to-Face Still-Face procedure: Application of the State Space Grid. Infant Behavior and Development, 38, 1-10.
  60. Puche-Navarro, R., & Rodríguez-Burgos, L. P. (2015). Particularities and universalities of the emergence of inductive generalization. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science49(1), 104-124.
  61. Smith, J. D., Dishion, T. J., Shaw, D. S., & Wilson, M. N. (2015). Negative relational schemas predict the trajectory of coercive dynamics during early childhood. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology43(4), 693-703.
  62. Tomicic, A., Martínez, C., Pérez, J. C., Hollenstein, T., Angulo, S., Gerstmann, A., … & Krause, M. (2015). Discourse-voice regulatory strategies in the psychotherapeutic interaction: a state-space dynamics analysis. Frontiers in Psychology6: 378, 1 -17.
  63. Van der Giessen, D., Hollenstein, T., Hale III, W. W., Koot, H. M., Meeus, W., & Branje, S. (2015). Emotional variability in mother-adolescent conflict interactions and internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents: Dyadic and individual processes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology43(2), 339-353.
  64. Boomstra, N. W., van Dijk, M. W., & van Geert, P. L. (2016). Mutuality in mother–child interactions in an Antillean intervention group. Early Child Development and Care186(2), 213-228.
  65. Erickson, K., & Côté, J. (2016). A season-long examination of the intervention tone of coach–athlete interactions and athlete development in youth sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise22, 264-272.
  66. Gates, K. M., & Liu, S. (2016). Methods for quantifying patterns of dynamic interactions in dyads. Assessment, 23(4) 459– 471.
  67. Granic, I., & Lougheed, J. P. (2016). The role of anxiety in coercive family processes with aggressive children. The Oxford Handbook of Coercive Relationship Dynamics, 231 – 248.
  68. Hollenstein, T., Allen, N. B., & Sheeber, L. (2016). Affective patterns in triadic family interactions: Associations with adolescent depression.Development and Psychopathology28(01), 85-96.
  69. Lougheed, J. P., Craig, W. M., Pepler, D., Connolly, J., O’Hara, A., Granic, I., & Hollenstein, T. (2016). Maternal and peer regulation of adolescent emotion: Associations with depression symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44, 963-974.
  70. Lunkenheimer, E., Kemp, C. J., Lucas‐Thompson, R. G., Cole, P. M., & Albrecht, E. C. (2016). Assessing biobehavioural self‐regulation and coregulation in early childhood: The Parent‐Child Challenge Task. Infant and Child Development.
  71. Mancini, K. J., & Luebbe, A. M. (2016). Dyadic affective flexibility and emotional inertia in relation to youth psychopathology: An integrated model at two timescales. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review19(2), 117-133.
  72. Pennings, H. J., & Mainhard, T. (2016). Analyzing teacher–student interactions with state space grids. In Complex Dynamical Systems in Education (pp. 233-271). Springer International Publishing.
  73. Lougheed, J. P., & Hollenstein, T. (in press). Socioemotional flexibility in mother-daughter dyads: Riding the emotional rollercoaster across positive and negative contexts. Emotion.
  74. Lougheed, J., Hollenstein, T., & Lewis, M. D. (in press). Maternal regulation of daughters’ emotion during conflicts from early to mid-adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence
Please send any new state space grid references not on this list to: statespacegrids AT

Barbot, B.,&Perchec, C. (2015). New directions for the study of within-individual variabilityin development: The power of “N = 1.” In E. L. Grigorenko (Ed.), The global context fornew directions for child and adolescent development. New Directions for Child and AdolescentDevelopment, 147, 57–67.